Good Eggs: New fertility test says it can measure how many high-quality eggs you have left

by Jessica Ashley

A new test is in town, and it might just give women information about their fertility they never expected to find: Exactly how many “good eggs” they have left.  Even if it could predict how many high-quality eggs we have and how that affects our chances of getting pregnant, is that information we want to know?

Plan Ahead, the first test of its kind to test and predict a woman’s “ovarian reserve,” will be available in fertility clinics in eleven states in the next few weeks. Marketed by Repromedix, it will be available for $350 to women who want a higher-tech insight into family planning than has previously been available.

How does this thing work anyway?
Plan Ahead’s calculations are based on tracking three hormonal tests:

* inhibin B, a protein derived from egg follicles
* anti-mullerian hormone, generated by the cells that surround eggs that have not yet matured
* follicle stimulating hormone, which prompts development of the eggs

These hormone levels are combined with the woman’s age and estrogen levels to create a formula for her fertility. Or at least conceive a score for how many eggs are viable for reproduction.

Do they really count the eggs?
The hormonal tests that Plan Ahead depends upon to derive this score aren’t new to the market, and some experts are concerned about the use and analysis of the anti-mullerian hormone since the Food and Drug Administration has not yet approved it for commercial distribution. Adding fuel to this fertility testing fire is the lack of published data by marketing company Repromedix. Although Repromedix conducted a study of 200 women’s ovarian reserves, the results have not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Some doctors say the test should be clinically established before the idea — or Plan Ahead itself — is sold to women. Although clinical data and FDA clearance isn’t being made available by Repromedix at this point, the company is making a very important point about what the test can’t do: It can’t predict whether or not a woman is fertile or how quickly she will get pregnant. It also cannot determine the rate of deterioration of the viable eggs she does have.

Simply put, it all comes down to the count. All the math and blood tests and money and technology tells a woman one thing: If she’s at risk of having a low supply of “good eggs.”

Why is this count so controversial?
At Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine, the chief of reproductive endocrinology and infertility, Dr. Ralph Krazer told the Chicago Tribune that he thinks Plan Ahead’s being offered to women prematurely “[g]iven the state of the science.”

In New York, Dr. Zev Rosenwaks took his concerns a step further. As the director of the Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility at New York Weill Cornell Medical Center, he questioned Plan Ahead’s value for patients worrying that results could generate false reassurance or panic among women who are tested.

While the science here is fascinating — just think, a mathematical formula that is essentially a peek into the amazing and previously far more mysterious underworld of our ovaries — as a woman, a mother, a person who wants to parent again in the future, I think Plan Ahead carries as many (if not more) anxieties than those other pregnancy-related tests.

Do we need to stress over another plus or minus sign?
I can’t imagine a woman or couple who haven’t been overwhelmed by pounding hearts while waiting for a plus or minus sign to appear on a pregnancy test. And if you’ve been through an amnio, age-related risk assesments, ultrasound and genetic “abnormality” tests, you’re familiar with the worry they produce over issues you never considered when you chose to become a parent. While I’ve been fortunate to be more fertile than I expected that one night after several pitchers of microbrews and mood lighting, I’ve known too many women who’ve experienced the emotional roller coaster of infertility drugs and treatments, hormones and panic in an effort to become pregnant. Sure, the science is incredible and has aided, inspired, guided and gifted many people with pregnancies, but it doesn’t mean that it doesn’t come free or even cheap.

The cost here, I am concerned, is the opportunity for more anxiety to creep into a woman’s biology. While Plan Ahead is geared, the manufacturer says, toward women in their mid-to-late 30s who have already experienced difficulty conceiving and want to test their ovum and themselves to see if they should pursue in vitro treatment, I imagine many more women in that will have their blood drawn for the cause.

Oh yeah. There are plenty of questions. A lifetime of ’em for a lifetime of ovum.
A girl child is born with a lifetime supply of eggs and once she starts menstruating, the eggs are released, with a sharp decline as she moves through her 30s. This basic biology is not new to us, but the cultural move to later motherhood is relatively recent. So how does a test that measures that egg supply factor in?

Will women make different maternal choices if they know they’re lacking lots of high-quality eggs?

Will the question of how many “good eggs” a woman has follow whether she’s got a clean bill of health, is STD-free and even wants children at all?

Will women who’ve chosen to put a college, a career, travel, themselves first in their 20s suddenly feel the necessity to put that all aside if there’s a chance their eggs may not outlast their other ambitions?

As family planning takes this turn, is the science formulating the potential for anxiety more tests could produce for people who want to become parents, if not now then maybe, possibly one day on down the road?

While we’re busy counting “good eggs,” are we also accounting for the emotional responses to Plan Ahead just being available?

What’s your response to Plan Ahead?: Would you take this fertility test if it was available in your city?

Know the Facts About Infantigo

Before I get into some of the facts about Infantigo which can also called Impetigo, I want to first talk about the biggest organ on our bodies, and that is our skin. Believe it or not, it wasn’t until a few years ago that I became aware that our skin was even considered to be an organ.

And out of all the organs in our bodies, our skin could be considered as being the most important. I know you’re probably thinking about our heart, brain, liver, kidneys and stomach, but think about it. It’s our skin that hold all these things together, so in my book that makes it more important.

Our Skin Is Made Up Of Three Different Layers

  • The outside layer is the epidermis.
  • The next layer is the dermis, and this contains all our nerve endings, blood vessels, oil glands and sweat glands. It also contains elastin and collagen.
  • The third layer is the  subcutaneous which is made mostly of fat and helps our bodies stay warm. It also helps hold the skin to all the tissues underneath it and absorbs trauma or shock to our bodies.

Our skin is also the first defense against any bacterial infections, and even though many bacteria already live on the surface, only healthy skin can protect us from any infections.

The most serious complication of Impetigo is a severe kidney disease that occurs following a strep infection, but this only occurs in less than 1% of the cases and mostly occurs in children. So let’s go over some of the facts about Impetigo…

It Is A Bacterial Infection Of The Surface Of The Skin

Yes, Impetigo happens to be a highly contagious bacterial skin infection which can show up anywhere on your body, but generally attacks your exposed areas. Children tend to get Impetigo on their face, especially around their mouth and nose, and sometimes even their legs or legs.

The bacteria responsible for this infection depends on which form of Impetigo you have. If you have the Non-Bullous form, the bacteria responsible would be either Staphylococcus or Streptococcus. If you should be suffering from the Bullous form of the disease, this is caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria.

The areas that are infected can range from dime to quarter size and start out as tiny blisters that break to expose moist, red skin. After a few days, the infected area gets a golden, grainy crust that gradually spreads.

This infection Is More Common In Children Than In Adults

The reason Impetigo is so common among children is because it can be easily spread to them by other children in school or pre-school. This is why it is also called “school sores.” It has been said that this disease really loves skin that has had other skin problems like poison ivy, skin rashes from allergies or eczema.

If your child has contracted Impetigo, you should keep them home from school or day care until they are no longer contagious, which is usually 24 to 48 hours after you begin treatment with the antibiotics. Without antibiotics, Impetigo will remain contagious until the sores go away.

During this time you have to be careful with their bed linen, clothes, towels and wash clothes. The key is to keep them separate from your other laundry and wash them daily. I suggest this because Impetigo can also be spread to other members of your family if they come into contact with items that have been handled by your child while they were still contagious.

Another thing is to try your best to keep the infected area as isolated as possible. If your child touches any other part of their body with hands or fingers that have touched the infected area, that area will also become infected.

This is why it’s important to start treatment of Impetigo as quickly as possible. The faster healing begins, the less you have to worry about this infection spreading.

There Is An Extreme Form Of Impetigo

The extreme form of Impetigo is called Ecthyma. If not treated quickly and properly the infection could invade down to a deeper layer of your skin. Because of this, some people call Ecthyma, “deep impetigo.” The one thing to be aware of if the infection gets this advanced is that the sores could cause permanent scarring and pigment changes.

Scarring And Permanent Skin Damage Is Very Rare

Impetigo is not serious and is easy to treat, but the key is to treat it in the early stages. It could clear on its own in two to three weeks, and of course if you decide to use antibiotics this can shorten the course of the disease and stop it from spreading to others.

It doesn’t leave scars or damage to the skin, but as I stated above, if you don’t treat it right away, and it advances to Ecthyma, then there will be scarring after it heals.

Pooping blood

Pooping blood is the result of distended veins (which cause hemorrhoids), which are located in the rectum, and anus’ lower part. In normal cases, they do not cause any problem, but if they get swollen, it can become very painful and then the patient has to treat it. There are two types of hemorrhoids; one is called, “Internal hemorrhoid” and the other is called “External hemorrhoid”. The internal hemorrhoids are present in the inside layer of rectum. The internal hemorrhoid cannot be felt physically and do not cause any kind of pain if everything is fine, but one has to cure hemorrhoids if he/she experiences any pain in anus or rectum, as the pain could be indicating hemorrhoids.

In the case of hemorrhoid swelling, the, the internal hemorrhoid protrudes through the anus. The outer skin, which surrounds the anus, has external hemorrhoids beneath it. It can also be not felt except in the case of abnormality, such as swelling of the hemorrhoid or when the blood clot is blocked in the vein, which is very painful, and demands to cure hemorrhoids.

The Causes

The most common cause of dark blood in poop is the swollen veins, which are caused when there is a strain, causing bloody stool. Pregnancy can also be one major reason of hemorrhoids, as during pregnancy the enlarged uterus put a pressure on the rectum. Treatment of hemorrhoids is very important if one feels pain or bleeding through anus. Another significant cause of hemorrhoids can be constipation too, as hemorrhoids are often associated with constipation that also puts strain on the bowel and stool passing. Liver problem can also lead to the hemorrhoid pain. One must see the doctor immediately to cure hemorrhoids if he/she experiences any such symptom such as problem in stool passing or swelling.

Symptoms Of Hemorrhoids

As the early symptom of hemorrhoids, one may experience bleeding from the anus, resulting in blood in your stool. This bleeding is mostly painless. The bleeding can be seen with the passage of poop, or it can just keep dripping when one uses toilet to poop. This bleeding stops itself after a limited period of time.  To cure hemorrhoids, one must take notice of earliest symptoms.

However, pooping blood may not be the one and only reason for hemorrhoids as bleeding can occur due to tumor, infection, or inflammatory disease of bowel. The symptoms of the problem in internal or external hemorrhoids are different each other and in order to treat it correctly, one must know about the problem in detail. In case of abnormality in internal hemorrhoids, the veins swell and the swelling go to the extent that the hemorrhoid is prolapsed outside the anus. This protruded hemorrhoid can be felt like a lump.

The internal hemorrhoid sticking out of the anus can be pushed back through the anal hole. This may solve it temporarily, but it will not completely cure it in any case, and there will be a time when the protruded hemorrhoid will become so swelled that it could not be pushed back anymore as the lump will be wedged.

Therefore, it is more advisable to take notice of blood in poop at the initial stage. The one suffering from hemorrhoid pain also feels harsh and experience uncontrollable itching inside the anus and every time during the passage of poop, there feels a blockage that rouses the urge of needling for the movement of bowel. The external hemorrhoid pain has a more chronic condition, which is known also as “Thrombosed External Hemorrhoid”. This condition crops up when a blot clot is blocked inside the hemorrhoid and produces great pain and itching. To treat this the blood clot in the vein has to be removed in the first place to allow the passage of blood and ease bowel movement.

The reason behind Thrombosed External Hemorrhoids being painful is that, the blood clot, which blocks the vein, causes increased swelling of the hemorrhoid, which causes increased pain. Doctors treat blood in poop as the pain increases if the patient sits, because sitting causes pressure on the rectum and the hemorrhoid, which has clogged blood clot.

The Cure

There are of course proper medical treatments to treat this condition, but there are some home remedies too, which can be adopted to cure hemorrhoids. To soothe the inflammation of the hemorrhoid and soften the stool, the patient must sit in a tub of warm water. This treatment can be performed regularly for 15 to 20 minutes and after having done with bath tub sitting, the anus area must be dried off with towel as otherwise, further inflammation can occur. As prevention and cure of hemorrhoid, doctors also recommend the intake of plenty of water and other health and fresh beverages to prevent the hardening of bowel movement.

For treatment, doctors also recommend patients not to sit on hard places such as wooden chair or bench for longer period as sitting can worsen the problem. Patients must get rubber or air donuts to sit on as these donuts are soft, and helps to ease the hemorrhoids problem.

Medically, there are many treatments to cure hemorrhoids. Some include oral intakes and other includes surgeries to treat dark blood in poop.  Various kinds of surgeries are used to cure hemorrhoids such as stapled Hemorrhoidectomy, a laser therapy that it used to make the internal hemorrhoids hard.

Hemorrhoids are a serious and painful bowel condition and one must not delay any time to cure hemorrhoids. The pain from your bloody poop can occur in consecutive intervals and patients may ignore it by considering it a normal bowel pain, such perception towards it is wrong as the earlier we go for treatment, the better it will be.

How To Become An Ultrasound Technician

A career as Ultrasound or sonography technician is a very lucrative and best job if you want to stable your economy and make assure your bright future in medical science with respective job profile and earn up to $80K per year. They help the physicians and doctors to find out the disease and illnesses of the patient correctly.

Ultrasound technicians who are also known as ultrasound techs, sonographers or diagnostic medical sonographers, sonographers use ultrasound instruments to take the internal image of the patient affected organ through sound waves generated by the ultrasound equipment. The information is given below for those who are interested in how to become an ultrasound technician.

The easy steps for becoming Ultrasound Technician

  • Step 1: complete the program or ultrasound technician or sonographer course which is affiliated by CAAHEP.
  • Step2:  Then graduate and complete your clinical training for the real experience and direct interaction with the patients.
  • Step3: fight the competitive exams name ARDMS exams.
  • Step 4: simply apply for positions as a certified and registered clinical sonographer.

What is an Ultrasound Technician?

An ultrasound tech generally takes the internal image of the human body organs and very large images of the human body tissues and the blood flow so that it can help the physician and the doctors to find out the real problem of the infection or the disease.

Generally they work in the hospitals and physician offices although some technician work in the private fields also.

Fields of medical which are heavily depended on the ultrasound instrument are gynecology, neurology, and obstetrics.

Duties of the ultrasound technician:

Ultrasound technicians or the sonographer do various jobs related to the use of ultrasound and sonography equipments and they also do the administrative task as well.

1. Explain the process to the patient 

The ultrasound technicians take digital image of the patient organs and before doing the task they explain the whole process to the patient which make them relax and comfortable. They answer any query related to sonography to the patient.

2. Adjusting the sonography equipments and patient positioning

After giving explanation to the patient then they set the instrument and apply a special gel to the area of human body which is to be examined and keep the patient in the position where it could get the proper and best digital view.

3. Take the internal image of the patient organ

Ultrasound techs take images of the patient organ with the help of the sonography instrument which help the physician to diagnose the exact problem.

4. Decide the best scan for diagnose purpose

Before delivering the scans to physician they judge the best or proper scan for correct diagnosing from a physician. They evaluate the best and accurate scans and deliver them to the doctor to make any judgement.

5. Minor tasks

They keep maintenance of the sonography instruments and patient records. They decide about purchasing the new one equipment if the old one is not working well.

Educational Requirements:

You do need some subject in high school to come into an ultrasound technician program preferably you  should have English, maths, computer science, health and both life and physical sciences. If you do not have any medical background then you have to fulfill some prerequisites for entering into this program. Some colleges demand to have a CNA program before having entry into a DMS course or program.

This course is available in many institutes, schools and colleges.

Ultrasound Technician Programs

CAAHEP has already affiliated  more than 150 training courses and programs for the ultrasound technicians which are available in many more institutes and universities. You can also choose online studying.

Ultrasound Technician Degrees 

Basically as we mentioned above the proper completion of the high school degree is the general requirement for ultrasound tech program. After that the interested one gets the way to pursue the respective course. For the interested ones or who are already in the health care department can choose the best option according to the convenience and the requirement which ranges from six months to 4 year programs or courses.

Certification program

This program is for ones who want to change their career options and want to grow fast in 6 months or in one year. The advantages of this option are that the students and graduates can get the job after some required lecture and medical hours.

Most of the employers give chance to the graduates because they spend more time for clinical training and they have the extreme experience as they spend more time with practicing. A disadvantage is for choosing this program is that it is not affiliated through CAAHEP (Commission on affiliation of ailed health Education Programs) for all vocational institutes so is aware when selecting the school.

Associate Degree

This course can be done in 2 years. If the interested one has much time and money then select this option for better training which trains you more in depth in the respective field of Ultrasound technology.

The advantage of choosing this program is the salary aspect which is clear if one has more experience or more qualification then he/she gets a more lucrative salary. If a one has associate degree can demand higher salary than certified technician.

Bachelor’s Degree

After completing the associate degree one can apply for the bachelor degree and for completing this degree additional 2 years of study is required.

Online V/s Campus training

In this high tech world the students who are not able to attend the classroom regular then with the help of the internet it is possible now for the ultrasound technicians. These programs include audio files, videos, discussion boards and forums through the email for studying about the respective field.
The queries of the students are solved online by the professionals and this is helpful for the working students.

Clinical Training

The ultrasound technician program requires clinical training and clinical hours. Whether you are on campus or enrolled online, you have to assure that the internship must be complete for getting the actual experience in the hospital where you directly interact with the patient.

Typical Course Curriculum

The subjects are different according to the institutes of the respective course of the student s enrolled in. Some common subjects offered for the Ultrasound or sonography technician:

  • General physics
  • Human physiology and Anatomy
  • Patient care
  • Medical laws and work laws
  • Introduction to Sonography

Anteverted uterus

Anteverted uterus is defined as the condition in which the uterus of the woman is tilted towards the abdomen. This positioning of the uterus has no impact on pregnancy or on a woman’s body. Most women can actually co-exist with the condition easily. Basically, such women have no problem conceiving or in delivery of a baby while there is almost no kind of treatment that is needed for this condition. It is the degree of orientation and inclination the influences the general impact of this condition on a woman. If the uterus is anteverted to the extreme, this will create an environment that is too challenging for eggs and sperms to meet up. With an anteverted uterus, ovaries are way high up in the pelvis and this means that they are away from harm more and are not likely to be hurt during intercourse.

Uterus Tilts Forwards: Should You Be Anxious?

Various Positions of the Uterus

Men and women have varying features with some features being normal while others are inherited. Hair color differs from one person to another, as do the color of the eyes and the skin. One less common variation among women, however, is the position of uterus. When doctors say that a woman’s uterus is tipped, most women think they they’re affected with some dire condition, but this is far from the truth. The anteverted uterus is a normal variant, just like your hair color and your skin color. This orientation is the most common position of the uterus, and it occurs when the fundus and the uterus of the body flexes forward at the cervix, the bottom part of the uterus. However, when the uterus you points in an upward manner toward the head, it is termed a retroverted uterus. This kind of tilted uterus flexes to the back of the cervix, and bottom part of the uterus, making the fundus and the body point towards the back. In some cases, the uterus also tilts to the left or the right. Both retroflexed and anteflexed uterus will evolve into retroverted uteruses during pregnancy and will return to their original position after childbirth.

The Impact of Tipped Uterus

Generally, women with an anteverted uterus don’t go through complications and impacts are usually minimized. This kind of tilted uterus has no known impact on a woman’s pregnancy and health. There are no problems with conceiving and delivering a baby, and no treatment is required as well. On the other hand, women with retroverted uterus might want to seek medical attention. With this uterine positioning, it becomes difficult for a physician to do an ultra sound especially during early pregnancy. The baby is not affected but will be seen at around 9 to 10 weeks. Such women also experience discomfort or pain during intercourse. Women with this uterine positioning also experience severe cramping, pain or diarrhea during menstruation. Others experience lower back pain and others have issues using tampons.

A variety of gynecological problems are associated with the position of the retroverted uterus. Uterine fibroids, for example, are common uterine pathology. The pressure and location of pain developed from uterine fibroids are influenced by the position of the uterus. Those with anteverted uteruses may feel focused pressure and pain towards the front are of the pelvis, while others who have retroverted uteruses are more likely to experience back pain.

Fortunately, this kind of tipped uterus can be corrected manually or through surgery. Though the surgical procedure, the uterus is repositioned higher in the pelvis and the uterine position can also be changed to become anteverted. The woman benefit by having the uterus stabilized while its normal position is restored. During the surgery, the ovaries can also be elevated to an angle in which they can hardly be bruised during intercourse.

In some cases, uterine abnormalities cause the uterus to switch position. Besides uterine fibroids, Endometriosis is also one such case where endometrial tissue grows on place outside of the uterus. During menstruation, endometrium, the inner lining in the uterus, is shed. In some cases, endometriosis may cause some adhesions that may change the position of the uterus.

Impact on Pregnancy

It is normal that your uterus is anteverted, but as mentioned above, it does affect some natural processes that occur within the uterus. The uterus is essential as it serves as the baby’s resting place as it develops within the womb. According to most doctors, this tilting position does not pose any threat on pregnancy, from the very first stages of conception and up towards the delivery of the baby. However, even if the condition does not pose any negative consequences, it is still highly suggested that the woman go through regular checkups along with consultation with a gynecologist. In rare cases, it may present other problems, such as uterine fibroids for example. There are many other disorders of the uterus that are not caused by its orientation, so you may still need to seek medical attention throughout your pregnancy. Among these problems include polyps in the uterus, ovarian cysts, fibroid tumors, and so on and so forth. In all cases, it is highly essential that the woman go through early pregnancy examination or uterus examination. These examination procedures will give you a clear image about the status of your anteverted uterus, along with other associated problems arising from it.

Treatment Methods

There is no treatment methods needed for anteverted uterus, but if the uterus is retroverted, surgical procedures are usually employed to correct it. Through surgical procedures, the location of the uterus is placed higher upon the pelvis or it may be repositioned so it resembles an anteverted. The women then benefits from this repositioning and is rid of all the negative health complications. During surgical procedures, some surgeons may also opt to elevate the uterus in an angle where they won’t be bruised during intercourse.

How It Affects Ultrasound

Most women who have anteverted uterus might find it shocking to be diagnosed with miscarriage, even when the baby is healthy and growing the right way. Consequently, numerous women who have this uterus orientation are quickly diagnosed with miscarriage. As a matter of fact, a number of women also report that their gestational sacs are empty, only to realize they are not after nine or ten weeks into the pregnancy. An anteverted uterus will not affect the health of your baby in any way, but it does affect when your baby will be seen. And there is a huge chance that you won’t be able to see your baby as soon as other women who also go through ultrasound if your uterus is anteverted.

Although anteverted uterus poses no danger to the unborn, the condition can come with some problems. However, it is advisable for expectant mothers to have discussions and regular checkups with a gynecologist since at times, this positioning can present other problems. While some women are born with the condition, others acquire it due to age and other factors like having given birth. Ligaments holding the uterus can become a bit lose due to pregnancy and delivery. As a result, that your uterus could shift positioning a bit.

Pansinusitis: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

There are four sinus cavities inside your skull and they are present under the cheekbones, forehead and in between the eyes. The swelling and irritation of all paranasal sinuses on one or both sides of sinus cavities is known as pansinusitis or pan sinusitis. Basically, the paranasal sinuses are air filled spaces and they operate in coordination with the nasal cavities and their major location is in the skull and under the facial contours. Due to the complete infection of pansinusitis, the condition can get really worse and you might encounter severe symptoms. Therefore, a proper treatment is extremely important and you should get the condition diagnosed at the earliest.

Causes & Symptoms

The most common causes for pansinusitis include:

  • Bacterial infections
  • Viral infections
  • Fungal infections
  • Allergies

There are several factors that might trigger this condition:

  • Upper respiratory tract infection
  • Contaminated water of swimming pool
  • Smoking
  • Asthma
  • Teeth abscess
  • Nasal polyps
  • Sinusitis history
  • Rhinitis
  • Air pollution

The initial stage of pan sinusitis is commonly an acute condition, but if it hasn’t got proper checkup and right treatment, it will become to be chronic pansinusitis.


There are several sinusitis symptoms which would arise when you are suffering from pansinusitis and these can be really daunting on your health. Since the paranasal sinuses are located all over your face and skull, you would experience a myriad of sinusitis symptoms. Fatigue, headache and sinus pressure is the most common type of symptoms that you would experience. Apart from these symptoms, you would also experience frequent toothaches, tenderness in facial areas, loss of smell, sore throat and fever. Some cases also show the symptoms of bad breath and cough but these are usually quite rare. Even though the symptoms can be treated easily by various over the counter medicines, some cases of pansinusitis are caused by presence of tumors or infections in these regions. Therefore, it is important that you get a complete checkup done and find the right cure for this condition.

Diagnosis and Treatment

The complete pansinusitis treatment is possible only when you have been able to diagnose the condition properly and have been able to identify the major reason behind the problem. In some cases, particularly the chronic pansinusitis ones, the reason behind the pan sinusitis symptoms is related to abnormalities and tumors in the sinus cavity structures. It is extremely important that you highlight these conditions in the diagnosis and design a treatment plan accordingly. Generally, a complete CT scan or x-ray is conducted to check for any such problems and it is an appropriate test which can help in highlighting the major tumors and abnormalities. Based on the findings and diagnosis, you can design a proper treatment plan.

There are several ways for pansinusitis treatment but it is important that you approach it in the right way. Even though you can go for the various over the counter medicines that are available, you would have to take the consultation of a doctor. The doctor will initially prescribe antibiotics if the condition is due to the bacteria infection. A surgery might be required for you to take care of the abnormalities that might be the reason behind pansinusitis.

How to Get Rid of Fordyce Spots On Lips

Fordyce spots on lips are usually small, painless, elevated, pale, white or red spots that are 1 to 3 mm in diameter that grows in border of the lips and face. This is common to women and men of all ages and it’s very popular among 90% of the men population and 50% of the women population.

Also known as Fordyce granules, Fordyce’s spots, and Sebaceous Prominence in some case, Fordyce spots is a skin condition that is characterized by white or yellowish spots that occur most on the lips or on the genitals. The spots are caused by oil glands which are normally under the skin. However, they are not that visible, except if they are under the mucus membranes. They don’t grow and they don’t always go away by themselves. Also, they aren’t contagious and they don’t cause people any pain, discomfort, or any other complications.

Possible Causes

As what has been said earlier, these spots are not infectious and they cannot be transmitted from one person to another, nor are they a result of oral sex. Fordyce spots on lips are in-born but they will only appear during the puberty age. What causes them to appear on the lips is its being overactive, thus making them visible to the naked eye.

  1. Sebum: Most medical experts think the spots are due to the sebum produced by the sebaceous glands that are found on the hair follicles.
  2. Genetic: This is another possible cause that could result in Fordyce spots, though there is little evidence to support this topic.

How can you tell if you have Fordyce spots?

(Image source:

What are the signs and symptoms?

These spots may appear as bright red or even purple papules on a man’s penis shaft, scrotum, or on a woman’s labia. These spots are not painful and they’re not even itchy. They are just blood vessels that are abnormally dilated and are covered by thickened skin. And in some cases, they may bleed during or after a sexual intercourse.

How to Tell

For males: you can tell if there are small, pale spots or bumps from 1-3 mm in diameter are visible on your scrotum, the shaft of your penis, and on the vermilion border of your lips.

For females: you can tell if your spots are on the vermilion border of your lips, and on your labia.

Note: Don’t confuse it with pearly penile papules (PPP). Pearly penile papules are actually small, dome-shaped skin-colored papules that are usually located on the sulcus or corona of the penis glands. They aren’t infectious nor are they associated to any skin disease or illness. They are just normal skin outgrowths on the human body.

How to Treat

These spots make a lot embarrassment to the affected person. For some, these spots are tolerable. However, for most people, they aren’t. For this reason, they are looking for ways on how they can remove these weird spots on their lips or on their genitals. If you have Fordyce spots on your lips, you can actually leave it unattended or untreated for it will not cause you any harm either. But if you want it to disappear fast, you can let a dermatologist treat it but surgery treatments will surely cost you too much for nowadays surgical treatments are known to be one of the most expensive way of curing diseases. Below is a list on different treatments.

1. Chemical Peels

Chemical peels like Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) can be an option to treat Fordyce spots found on the affected person’s lips. In this treatment, the lips’ skin will flaked that completely peels off the spots. When peeling the skin of your lips, it will become sensitive that it should be moisturized regularly. The bad thing is if this treatment has been stopped, the symptoms might return.

2. Gel or Tretinoin Gel

Tretinoin cream or gel, which is also known as Retin-A Micro, is considered to be the most simple treatment. Often or daily application of this cream will minimize the bump of the spots. For best results, it is recommended to use with alpha hydroxyl acid agents which is also used in acne treatments.

3. Accutane

Accutane is a more powerful substance than Tretinoin. It is used for chronic cases of Fordyce. It’s actually an oral drug that many doctors recommend to treat severe cases of acne if Tretinoin creams have failed. This oral drug is capable of reducing the amount of oil that your skin produces. It can be a good treatment but if you stop using this, the Fordyce spots may come back.

4. Wart Removal Methods

Sometimes you can use the same methods that you normally use to remove warts, like cautery. Cautery is a method that involves burning or searing the spots with the use of an electrical instrument or with an acidic compound. Aside from cautery, you can also freeze the spots using nitrogen. Both can be painful and they are not always a hundred percent effective. Freezing or burning can cause the surrounding skin to be red so if you don’t want that to happen, you can try other methods instead.

5. Laser Vaporization

Aside from Tretinoin cream and Accutane, another treatment option that you can go for is laser vaporization. Electro-desiccation which is a vaporizing laser treatment is also an effective treatment for Fordyce spots. This is only used when the spots are causing serious cosmetic concerns already. This will not give any side effects but it is very expensive. Another one is CO2 laser treatment.

Using lasers in removing the spots can be more effective. But then again, you might not be able to afford this. If you choose this option, you will need to go to the doctor’s office and you’ll need more than just one visit to complete the treatment.

6. Cryosurgery

This treatment uses maximum cold temperature for the reason that it helps destroy the prominences. But then, it might result to a side effect like scarring. After some days of treatment that disappears the bumps and spots, blisters may form. Another disadvantage of this treatment is that it can damage the nerves and tissues near the affected area.

Home Remedies

Homeopathic remedies and treatment are a popular alternative to traditional medicine because they offer natural and cost effective ways to get rid of Fordyce spots. And the best thing about them is that they don’t have any side effects. If you want to know some cure that can be done even at home, continue reading this article.

Garlic-rich Diet

One effective remedy is a diet that is rich in garlic. Because garlic is an effective anti-oxidant for healing wounds and infection, people who have Fordyce spots should switch to a diet that is rich in garlic. With this remedy, you don’t have to go to your dermatologist and spend lots of money.

Fruits and Vegetables

Fruits and vegetables are also an effective way to get rid of Fordyce spots. However, not all fruits and vegetables are good in the removal. You should buy those that are rich in vitamin A and vitamin B complex. Also buy fruits and vegetables that are rich in vitamins C, D, E, and K. These are all effective in alleviating the skin spots.

Argania and Jojoba Oil

The application of Argania and Jojoba oil is also an effective method, especially if they contain Tocopherol extract. Jojoba oil contains properties that are similar to the oils that are produced by the oil glands present in human skin. Argania extract, meanwhile, comes from an evergreen tree indigenous to Morocco. This emollient oil contains a lot of nutrients and it is usually used in cosmetics.

Other Home Remedies:

There are also other natural remedies you can go use at home, here is a list that you can try before seeing your doctor:

  • Coconut Oil
  • Tea Tree Oil
  • Turmeric
  • Aloe Vera Gel
  • Honey
  • Lemon
  • Asparagus
  • Citruses
  • Broccoli
  • Comfrey
  • Spinach
  • Vanilla extract and sugar

Eating a healthy balanced diet is recommended when undergoing in these treatments to higher the vitamins that your body needs which will help to the fast healing.


These are the different types of treatments that people can use to treat Fordyce spots. Our skin can be sensitive, thus it’s only imperative to choose the right method to avoid irritations and complications. If you decide to treat them, it would be better if you consult your doctor before you make use of any remedy.

How To Become A Pharmacy Technician

Any career related to the health care industry is a noble one along with being very rewarding. Throw the misconception out of your mind that in order to have a career in health care industry you need to have spent long years of education in some medical school, or there are no high emotional and physical demands. You would be surprised to see that how rewarding a career of a pharmacy technician can be.

Who is Called a Pharmacy Technician?

A pharmacy tech job means helping a pharmacist to fill prescriptions, deliver them, and keep a record of dosages on particular patient records, though a qualified pharmacy tech needs to know more than counting medication. Many techs work in retail, wholesale and online pharmacies, hospitals or governmental organizations.

In the present time pharmacists have an important role in the care of the patients. Now they do way more than just serving their basic responsibilities as pharmacists. This career and the demand of pharmacy technicians are increasing with each passing day and it can be verified by the amount of jobs available in this particular sector. According to the statistics of 2014, a pharmacy field is expected to increase by 32% through 2024. All this growth in this profession is because of the bottom line that people are living longer by virtues of health care, and thus require more medicines as they grow old.

Qualifications that you require if any!

The basic thing you are required to know is that what are the qualifications that you need to become a pharmacy technician, you should also know about the professional skills that you require. In the United States there is no requirement of a degree or a certification but if you are a certification holder than your chances at getting a very demanding job are high.

Majority of the mature-age candidates who aspire to get pharmacy technician education, but they do not have sufficient funds or time to attend a school; they should consider the online education option. Following are some arguments in favor of getting this education and certification online:

  • There are many distance learning courses that are offered which allow you the flexibility over time constraints that you want.
  • You are able to work at the comfort of your home, pace yourself and give more time to those topics that you are particularly not good at.
  • Typically you will be availed with a vast range of materials on the web and you will also get support from your course coordinator.
  • Pharmacies look for experienced and well trained potential candidates.
  • If you choose to train yourself in the field on the web over attending a real-life school, you will save quite some money.


Pharmacy technicians are those individuals who have the responsibility to help other licensed pharmacists in their particular workplaces. Pharmacy techs are also responsible for administration tasks which hold principle importance in assisting the pharmacy’s operation. These individuals known as pharmacy technicians make sure that the day to day operations run smoothly by harmonizing accounting books, stocking shelves and doing several other clerical duties.

Following is a list of duties that you will be doing at any reputed pharmacy:

  • You will have to verify all the details related to prescriptions.
  • You will also be responsible for responding to the phone calls.
  • Maintenance of the prescriptions of the patient and their successive update would be your basic duty.
  • Receiving prescriptions and requests via writing, phone or email is another important duty.
  • Double check the insurance policies and issues related to that of the patients.
  • Labeling and filling of the medication bottles and the rearrangement of the stock in the pharmacy is another important duty of a pharmacy technician.

How to Become a Pharmacy Technician:

Keep a Clean Slate

Individuals who have been convicted of felonies within the past 5 years and those with drug-related offenses (regardless of time lapsed) cannot become certified pharmacy technicians. This is because of the nature of the work; individuals are required to work in close proximity with drugs and a red flag on the slate is enough to disqualify one from the certification. This is the first and most crucial step because if this requirement is not met, there are nil prospects of pursuing a career as one.

Educational Requirements

An aspiring candidate is required to have completed a high school diploma or a GED equivalent and should be at least 18 years of age. As far as studying for the certification is concerned, one can join a community college or even enroll in one of the courses to attain the necessary education.

Work as a Pharmacy Assistant

Start working part-time as an assistant in a pharmacy. This does not require any formal degree or qualification, and job responsibilities will typically consist of clerical duties such as ringing the cash register, taking phone calls and other administrative chores. Although not a requisite step, it will greatly improve chances of being hired at a reputable pharmacy once certification is acquired.

Choosing a Certification

While choosing one of the two options for studies, it is best to do as much research as possible on the credibility of the institution, their success rate and support system. Also, find out which board the institution is affiliated with, since there may be multiple boards offering certification in your state or region.


This step should not only be a part of becoming a pharmacy tech, but should be included in a listing of becoming a great technician. Once the exam has been cleared, in order to remain on top of market changes and requirements recertification should be undertaken to make technicians adaptable and competitive against other candidates. A recertification typically includes 10 to 20 hours of study after which additional credits are granted to the candidate.

Training and Certification Requirements


Pharmacy technician training can be done in a variety of ways, but some basic requirements apply. Many states require either a high school diploma or equivalent certification, after which, those wishing to further their training can take specific courses at vocational schools, community colleges and even some hospitals. These specialized programs are often conducted in a lab setting and include laboratory work and training in pharmaceutical techniques and applications, as well as learning the names, uses and effects of prescription drugs. These programs also often include hands-on internships at real working pharmacies. Online courses in pharmaceutical training are also available from accredited colleges and vocational schools.

Depending on the school, pharmacy technician training can take from six months up to two years for a diploma or for certification. While this type of specialist training is not a state requirement, be advised that many pharmacies tend to favor applicants who have at least a high school diploma, and a further course of specialized pharmaceutical training often gives applicants an edge when applying for a job.


As for certification, it is essential in many states that pharmacy technicians must have licensure from their state’s board of pharmacy; this necessitates that the applicant first acquire a high school or equivalent diploma. This type of licensure includes a background check, and applicants must pay an application fee; also, be prepared to wait for at least several weeks for the application to be processed.

Other certification requirements differ from state to state; while some states don’t require board certification, others do, and board certification will certainly enhance a pharmacy technician’s credentials and might easily provide increased opportunities for employment, particularly because board certification is required by some pharmaceutical employers. Towards this end, the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB) as well as the Institute for the Certification of Pharmacy Technicians (part of the National Healthcareer Association) conduct examinations for pharmacy technicians. In order to be eligible to take either of these exams, applicants must have at least a high school diploma and cannot have been convicted of a felony. Likewise, applicants taking the PTCB exam cannot have had any drug or pharmacy related convictions in their past. While there is a fee for these exams, some pharmaceutical employers will reimburse this cost to their employees. After passing the exam and getting certification, pharmacy technicians are required to undergo 20 hours of continuing education over the next two years, 10 hours of which can be done hands-on at the pharmacy where they work. In addition, certified technicians need to be re-certified every two years.

How Long Does it Take to become a Pharmacy Technician?

It is important, therefore, to take the process of becoming a pharmacy tech one step at a time. This varies depending on the state you are in and the position you have. You also have to think about how much time you’re willing to devote to this pursuit. If you take classes, you’ll have to make time for these classes and for any other training. If you work really hard, it is also possible to become a pharmacy technician in a little under three months.

Short Outline for Future Pharmacy Technicians

Most specialized career centers share the following professional advice on becoming a pharmacist tech:

  1. Starting out is likely to be a challenge, but pharmacy tech salaries have a truly excellent potential for growth with gaining experience.
  2. Employers tend to favor those technicians who have got either associate’s degrees or certificates from community or technical colleges. So, find a top pharmacy technician program and get prepared to take the so-called National Pharmacy Technician Certification Exam.
  3. Why not interview for similar pharmacy tech jobs and find out such important items as location, hours, salary or benefits?
  4. You should continue education every 2 years.

Acne Conglobata: Causes & Treatment (Pictures)

With dozens of various types of acne, you may have never heard before of a term Acne Conglobata. A severe form of acne skin condition, it is a highly inflammatory skin disease. This condition is being presented with comedones, abscesses, nodules and severe form of draining sinus tracts. This skin condition is found in people who are from 18 to 30 years old. Some patients experience this severe skin disease at the age of 40 as well. This a form of active acne issue. People whose acne has subsided, can experience this problem.

What are Causes?

Despite the fact that the cause of this sort of acne is unknown, there are a few possible factors that might be associated with acne conglobata, here are as following:


Medicals cannot agree on one actual cause of acne conglobata. Many doctors agree that it is being closely associated with testosterone and thus appears primarily in men.

Anabolic Steroids

The condition might be caused by anabolic steroid abuse and sometimes appears in men following stopping testosterone therapy.


It can also happen to a person who has a tumor that’s releasing big amounts of androgens, or to people today in remission from autoimmune diseases, for example leukemia.


In specific persons, the condition may possibly be triggered by exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons or ingestion of halogens.

Acne Conglobata Appearance

This condition presents with blackheads appearing about the face, neck, chest, upper arms and buttocks in groups of two or three. The pimples form around the blackheads. They are huge and engorged with fluid, and may possibly be sensitive to touch. They remain for a while and continue to grow and fill with pus until they lastly rupture. Following the lesion has drained, it fills up once again. After they rupture, numerous nodules can fuse together to form bigger shapes. The lesions stay for a lengthy time. They form a scab within the center but they continue to spread outwards. When the lesions do ultimately heal, they leave scars which can be the usual type of acne scar (atrophic) or is often the raised bump typically left behind by a burn or a cut (keloidal).

Hidradenitis Suppurativa

In many cases, acne conglobata comes with hidradenitis suppurativa. Hidradenitis suppurativa is type of chronic disease that is identified with scarring. It affects the apocrine, the sweat glands as well. This skin condition is often misdiagnosed. The hidradenitis suppurativa cannot happen before puberty. Apocrine sweat glands or sebaceous glands are being affected severely. Breasts, groin, buttocks, inner thighs and underarms are affected.

What does it look like – Pictures

How to Treat

To combat the acne conglobata, one of the most widespread treatment may be the acne medication isotretinoin. It may possibly be combined with prednisone (20–60 mg/day). Dapsone (50–100 mg/d), which is normally used to treat leprosy, is really a riskier medication but is occasionally prescribed in circumstances exactly where the regular therapy is ineffectual on this types of acne. Antibiotics such as tetracycline or erythromycin (2 g/day) may possibly also be prescribed. An alternative selection would be to treat with carbon dioxide laser therapy, followed by topical tretinoin therapy. Surgery may be needed to eliminate large nodules. Alternatively, nodules might be injected with triamcinolone.

A dermatologist will be able to give you an expert opinion on your particular condition and advise you on the best course of action to proceed with based on what they see.

Infected Tattoo: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention

A large number of tattoos may become infected shortly after you leave the tattoo studio. It is usually very rarely the artists error. Infections may be viral or bacterial, but many tend to be bacterial and are really easily avoided.

What causes an infected tattoo?

There are several causes of tattoo infections. If your tattoo technician (aka tattoo artist) is using unhygienic apparatuses with insanitary practices, the likelihood of you catching an infection is highly possible. Improper tattoo aftercare and allergic responses to the pigment used can be also the causes too. Below are the common causes that the infected tattoo may most occur:

  • Not washing the tattoo enough or whatsoever
  • Being around a lot of ill individuals
  • Swimming with a fresh tattoo particularly within lakes or ponds
  • Going to sleep on unclean sheets and using dirty towels
  • Authorizing other individuals handle their new tattoo design before it’s repaired
  • Touching their own designs using filthy fingers (first timers tend to like to ‘feel up’ the tattoo)
  • Not putting into action proper tattoo aftercare supplements
  • Washing dishes, scrubbing toilets, and so on having designs upon the hands or wrists
  • Using infected lotions or petroleum treatments.

What are the symptoms?

After getting a tattoo you will notice a degree of inflammation around the tattoo area. This is basically normal, but if the inflammation lasts for more than a week, you are already experiencing infected tattoo symptoms. The symptoms are as follows:

1. Itching

Is it itching? This means that there are bacteria in your tattoo and they are trying to breed. In response to this, your body has sent along a whole army of soldiers to do battle. Your tattoo is now a battlefield. If you are healthy, the chances are that your immune system will eventually win the battle. But it could take a long time. In the meantime it is very painful for you. The other problem with this battle is that it could ruin the look and brightness of the colors in your tattoo. The sooner you end this battle the better.

2. Pain

Is it very painful? Well you can always expect a bit of pain after having a tattoo. After all, you have had a foreign object dragged through your skin thousands of times, penetrating your nerve endings, so, hey; it is going to hurt a little. But is it really hurting? Is it getting worse? If so, the chances are you have tattoo infections of one sort or another.

3. Redness

Is it going red? If your tattoo is going red then you almost certainly have a tattoo infection. Remember those bacteria and the soldiers in your immune system? Well, they are doing battle right now for the right to live in your body. If it is just red, it is early days and your immune system will probably win, eventually….

4. Hot to Touch

Is it hot to touch? If it is then you almost certainly have tattoo infections of some kind. Whilst it is common for any tattoo site to warm up a bit, after all, no one told your immune system that you would be putting ink under your skin, too much heat indicates that a bacterial battle is going on in your tattoo.

5. Swelling

Is it going swollen? If it’s swollen then you have an infection, but in one way it is a good sign. It means that your immune system has sent its armies of soldiers to the battleground. There isn’t much room under that tattoo, which is why it is swollen, a bit like your favorite shopping center at Christmas, it is jam packed with people who would not normally be there. A swollen tattoo is a sign that your immune system is putting up a good fight.

6. Pus

Is there discharge or pus coming out of the tattoo? The pus is your body’s way of getting rid of dead soldiers. They are toxic rotten cells that need to be pushed out of the body, so it is a good sign that your body is doing that. But are the dead soldiers your soldiers or the dead bacteria? You need to give your soldiers a helping hand.

7. Fever

Fever is one of the obvious signs of an infection. If you develop fever right after getting a tattoo and if the fever lasts more than 3-5 days, you might be having a systemic infection. The other symptoms accompanied with fever are weakness and muscle aches.

8. Red streaks

Is there a red line moving away from your tattoo under your skin? This could be the worst type of tattoo infections, as it indicates the beginning of blood poisoning. If you think that you have this symptom, get to the Doctors and the Doc will give you some antibiotics. And do it now. It is serious.

How to Treat

If you are experiencing any of the symptoms mentioned above, then it is not the time to be complacent and passive. Infections should be treated immediately to avoid further complications that may even lead to dangerous conditions like sepsis or even death.

The best way to treat an infected tattoo is avoid an infection in the first place. Before getting a tattoo, one must be prepared to care for it afterwards. An open wound is a breeding ground for bacteria so make sure to cover the new tattoo carefully with a clean bandage that allows some air to get in. This must be done for at least two hours. Using any kind of plastic to cover the wound is a very bad idea because this material locks moisture in and can lead to infection. The key here is to keep the wound clean and dry.

When washing the new tattoo, lukewarm water and a mild anti bacterial soap must be used. Using an abrasive material like a towel and rubbing it against the skin is forbidden. A wound must be pat gently to dry.

Another important way is to consult a doctor on how to properly clean an infected wound and which anti-bacterial soaps are most effective. Not only that, a licensed physician can also recommend anti-bacterial medicine for treatment. Bacitracin, A&D Ointment, or Neosporin are some of the commonly used ointments but consulting a doctor is still best. After all, other diseases, which one may not be aware of — such as diabetes, peripheral arterial disease or an impaired immune system — can increase the likelihood of an infection or make it difficult for all types of wounds to heal.

How to Prevent

For many people, the risk of infection from a tattoo is enough to steer them away from getting their first tattoo. Stories spread quickly about tattoos gone bad and people tend to fear the worst. The truth is, the majority of people getting tattoos never get a tattoo infection. While the risk of infection is warranted, there are simple procedures and guidelines you can follow to greatly minimize any possible tattoo health risks.


  • Make sure you go to a tattoo parlor with a good reputation
  • Ask around for recommendations about where to go get your tattoo
  • Take care of yourself and your new tattoo after you get it

Choose a Good Tattoo Shop

The first thing is to make sure you go to a tattoo parlor with a good reputation, sanitary procedures and a clean shop. If you enter a tattoo shop and find it to be dirty and generally unsanitary, simply move on to another. Ask around with people you know who have tattoos for where the best shops and/or artists are. Avoid anyplace you have heard anything negative about.

Minimize the Risks

The next thing is to take care of yourself and your new tattoo after you get it. Think of your new tattoo as any other open wound you could get on your body. What do you do when you get a large gash on your arm? You wash it, you treat it tenderly, you use antibacterial soaps and ointments and you give it the time it needs to properly heal. Avoid certain situations and never pick or scratch at it. All of these rules can help you avoid any tattoo health risks and possible tattoo infection.

Take Care of Your Tattoo

Do your research and take care of your new tattoo like any other open wound and you will find that the tattoo risks you hear about are minimal. They shouldn’t sway you from your decision. Getting a tattoo has risks just like anything else you do in life, from crossing the street to getting on a plane. What you need to remember is to take the necessary precautions and do everything in your power to prevent it from happening and stop any problems before they arise.

Cracked Rib Symptoms and Healing

In human there are 12 pairs of ribs. Because of these ribs, we get the shape of our chest. Ribs play a very crucial part in human body as they protect some of the vital organs like heart, lungs, kidneys etc. But a crack in this area can really cause  discomfort

Let us see cracked ribs symptoms and causes as it is very crucial to know what exactly is this problem.

Before jumping to carked ribs symptoms we shall first discuss few necessary things about ribs. Ribs in human can be classified into three main categories. These are

  1. Upper ribs
  2. Middle ribs
  3. Lower ribs

Upper ribs are supposed to be the safest bone as these are protected by clavicle i.e. the collar bone and the shoulder blade. In general these does not get hurt easily but if get a brutal hit then they can lead to very dangerous situation. They can expose aorta. Aorta is one of the most crucial blood arteries that supplies blood to complete body. If aorta somehow gets hurt, it may result in instant death. Injuries to middle ribs can lead to puncturing of lungs. If lungs get punctured then all the pleural fluid may be out let and because of it, there may be collapsing of lungs. The lower ribs also help in protecting various organs like liver, spleen, kidneys. Hence you can yourself judge what important role ribs plays in the body. They act as a shield that takes away all the pressure.

Below are some of the main causes of cracked ribs.

There are many causes by which our ribs can get cracked or bruised. Breaking of ribs is extremely common in sports persons and athletes. Rib fracture can occur due to sprain or tear due to some kind of physical activity or not warming up prior any weight training. If a person gets hit, on the rib region then also he may suffer form a cracked rib. Osteoporosis is another reason of breaking of ribs in elderly people and female after menopause. In case of certain deformity, ribs can also get broken.

Cracked ribs symptoms

Rib pain is one of the most obvious symptom of Rib Fracture. Below are some of the very important cracked ribs symptoms.

  1. Chest pain – chest pain is one of the main symptoms of cracked ribs. It is extremely important to get a proper diagnose done of a chest pain as if there is a fracture then, it may lead puncturing of lungs. If lungs somehow gets collapsed then it may lead to grave situation that may even be fatal.
  2. Breathlessness – breathlessness may also be another situation that can again be a major symptom of cracked ribs.
  3. Pain during movements – there can be a great pain whiles any kind of movement. Even following the daily routine can also be a hassle as it can contribute to the shooting pain in the body.
  4. Painful breathing – the extent of pain may be such that there may be pin while breathing. This is so because as the lungs gets inflated while breathing, the cracked rib sore causing tremendous pain.
  5. Pain in ribs while coughing: If you wake up with either side of your ribs  hurting when you take deep breath’s in, yawning, coughing is an indication that of cracked or bruised ribs

If you’re suffering from any of the problems above, it may be signs of cracked ribs

How to Heal Broken Ribs

Broken bone is a painful condition so as the broken rib. The main challenge that we face for healing a broken rib is that the ribs can’t be immobilized. Immobilization cannot be done as our thoracic cavity expands and contracts due to breathing activity. But there are certain methods and modes to heal a broken rib.

How to heal a broken rib

Below are mentioned some of the few important  instruction that can be very helpful in case of a broken rib

  1. Rest – Rest is one of the most important criteria for healing a fracture. Hence same is with the rib. As much as you will take rest the healing will be more proper and good. Avoid any kind of stress especially on the rib part. Don’t indulge in physical activities.
  2. Proper Care for lungs – lungs are considered to be the vital organs of the body. Lungs are the main reason we could inhale the oxygen so that it may be supplied to various other organs of the body. Injury or any kind of infection to the lungs may be a complication in rib fracture. One should also avoid taking deep breath as that may also hinder in the healing process of ribs.
  3. Medication – one should take proper medication as directed by a physician. It is very essential that administration of pain killers and anti – inflammatory medicines should be done. This will help in reducing the agony of pain and also helps in reducing the swelling in the body. As mentioned earlier also that with constant breathing it is really very difficult to immobilize ribs thereby pain killers are the right option to suppress pain.
  4. Position to lie down – If you are not suffering with injuries on neck, or back then it is always recommended that you should lie down on the side with the broken rib. This will help in easy expansion of the ribs and it would be less painful.
  5. Balanced diet – It is always suggested that one should take a proper balanced diet. As there is increased demand of vitamins and minerals in the body while healing of a fracture hence there should be a good supply of these vitamins and minerals to cope up with the increased demand.
  6. Various occupational therapies like heat cold therapies are done to promote the healing process. Various doctors and physicians also recommended chest binders that are helpful in protecting the chest and rib cage form further injuries.
  7. One should be bit patient with the healing process. Healing is a natural process and healing of a broken rib is not different from it. In general a rib takes about 4 to 6 weeks to get healed. Hence one should be patient and protect the rib from damages that can be done due to ignorance.

Boxers Fracture Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis

A boxer’s fracture is a breaking of hand bone of the area that forms the knuckles. This fracture is also known as brawler’s fracture because a professional boxer is actually less likely to suffer this type of fracture. The less well-trained brawlers have to learn how to punch without hurting themselves.

The metacarpal bones in our hands connect bones in our finger to bones in our wrist. There are five metacarpal bones-1 that connect each of our fingers to our wrist. All metacarpal bones have similar anatomic structure. Each of the structure consists of base, shaft, neck, and head. The metacarpal bone base is the area that connects to the wrist bones. The shaft is long slender portion.

The neck is the bone portion that connects the shaft to the head. The metacarpal bone connects metacarpal bone to finger bone. The metacarpal bones head forms the knuckle of an enclosed first. A boxer fracture involves a fracture (hairline most times) in the metacarpal neck. This was explained in the fracture of the metacarpal bone of the smaller finger. This is among most vulnerable bone to break while punching.

Boxers fracture happens in the metacarpal bones that links the ring finger or smaller finger to our wrist. This bone is also called 4th and 5th metacarpal bones. Some physicians include fracture in the neck of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bones as boxer’s fracture. The 2nd metacarpal bone links the index finger to our wrist, and 3rd Metacarpal connects mid-finger to our wrist.


Boxer’s fracture got its name from its most common cause – punching an object with a closed fist. This fracture commonly occurs during fist fights or punching hard objects like wall, wood etc. These types of fractures usually happen when fist is closed, however they can also happen when your hand is un-clenched and hits a hard object.


The most common symptoms of boxer’s fracture are – pain & tenderness in a particular portion of hand corresponding to any one of metacarpal bones, surrounding the knuckle. Also, take is a boxer’s fracture symptoms if you feel pain in hand movement or fingers after some punching practice.

Snapping and popping sensation in the fist area is also a symptom of boxer fracture.

After Boxers Fracture, your hand can look swollen, discolored or bruised. Deformity of the fist is also an indication. The physician can gently press the fractured area to diagnose fracture. In addition, pain can be produced by moving the finger that is linked to the metacarpal bone which was hit. Gently pushing inwards toward also helps in confirming this fracture.

Additionally, making fist of the affected hand can show misalignment of suffering finger. You may not notice this but your doctor will notice this misalignment and deformity very clearly. In your fist, bended fingers lean unusually towards the thumb.

More severe types of boxers fracture is one with a cut which indicates a more serious type of boxer’s fracture.

Fracture Medical Care

When you suffer boxer fracture, contact your doctor immediately. If its weekend and doctor is not available, go emergency department for immediate x-ray diagnosis. If you’re splinted or casted but feel increase in pain, numbness, or tingling in the fingers of the casted arm, take doctor’s advice. Any fracture infection signs (in cut or stitched wound) also requires doctor’s care.

Healing time

If you think you have suffered this fracture, make sure you get physician’s advise. Most likely, it will heal in 8 to 10 weeks; however you can use herbal supplements to reduce healing time of your bones by as much as 40%.

Fractured Toe Treatment – Also know the Causes, Symptoms and Precautions

Each of our toe is made up of many smaller bones. Single or multiple of these bones can break (or get fractured) from an impact injury to you foot or toes. In most cases it’s a big toe fracture as it’s corner fingers that take most impact (also because it’s bigger and longer). Likewise little toe fracture happens in case of side impact. Middle toe fracture is also very common.

Causes of Fractured Toe

Fractured toe is normally a result of trauma to our foot or toe in an accident. Injuries like stubbing toe or accidently dropping some heavy thing on your toe are most common causes of a toe fracture.

Stress toe fracture

A broken toe can also be a result of prolonged and repetitive pressure, stress or movements of toe. This is called a stress fracture.

Broken Toe Symptoms

After the toe injury, sufferer feels immediate pain followed by swelling or stiffness. Skin Bruising might also be noticed. The toe doesn’t looks normal, as it may look bent and out of shape. If the fractured bone is out of place. It is very difficult to walk with a toe fracture because of pain. Wearing shoes becomes a painful exercise.

Toe bone complications

Without proper toe treatment and negligence, some complications can arise. Such Complications can occur almost immediately after an injury, or can happen even after years.

Immediate toe complications

  • Nail injury: A blood clot might develop inside the toenail (medically known as subungual hematoma condition). If this blood collection is large, it might have to be drained by the doctor by making a small hole in toenail to drain this unwanted blood collection out. However, if the hematoma is more  , the entire toenail may even required to be removed.
  • Open toe fracture: Sometimes, the fractured bone may come out through the skin because of the severe impact. This is known as open or compound toe fracture. In such case, careful cleansing of the wound and antibiotic medication is required to prevent bone from becoming infected. In extreme cases, surgery may also be advised by the doctor.
  • Delayed complications: Even after the fractured toe has healed, patient may later face problems such as arthritis, stiffness, or pain. In many cases, the fractured bones don’t heal completely (this is known as nonunion), or they heal in an incorrect position (this is called a malunion).

The Care

A doctor will take an x-ray to check if your toe is really cracked or broken.

Please be aware that if you have a broken toe, than it should be looked after with great care every day. Seek an immediate doctor’s advice if any of the following occur:

  • Sores, redness, or open wounds near injured area
  • Cold, numb, or tingling toes is also a symptom of toe fracture
  • If you see, Blue or gray colored skin around your toe after an accident, it can be a broken toe

Go to your doctor prepared. You doctor might ask you questions to understand the extent of fracture by knowing how the toe was hit. Don’t forget to mention other injuries you may have suffered with your toe injury.

It is best to seek rehabilitation soon after you recover from this kind of fracture to keep away chances of any future problems like arthritis.


Once you that it’s a toe fracture, you must take following precautions if you want to recover faster and avoid any future complications:

  • Stay away from the any physical activity that puts pressure on the fractured bone. Don’t take any chances until you’re sure that it’s a 100% recovery.
  • If you love the activity that caused this fracture, you can suffice that activity with another activity that doesn’t pressure the injured area (like swimming). Take a rich diet and you will be able to return to your favourite sport very soon.
  • Consult a specialist. Your coach is the best person who will help you understand what you did wrong that causes the injury. This is very important if you want to avoid recurrence.


If you suspect a toe fracture, see your doctor immediately. Until you see him or he comes to see you, avoid putting any pressure on your toe. Apply ice will help in reducing swelling. For this, use an ice pack (avoid direct contact of injury with ice; simply wrap ice in a clean towel and apply to the fractured area). Don’t apply ice for more than 20 minutes. If there is too much pain or swelling, you can take an analgesic (like aspirin or ibuprofen). Avoid wearing shoe and if required, wear a bigger comfortable shoe.